Main advantages of PAFC are: achievable heating and power generation and low sensitivity to fuel impurity [19]. There are seven primary types of fuel cell of commercial importance: Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC), Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC), Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC), Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC), Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Biofuel Cells. ... (AFC), phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), and proton exchange mem-brane fuel cell (PEMFC), etc. At an operating range of 150 to 200 °C, the expelled water can be converted to steam for air and water heating (combined heat and power). The reaction process is similar to PEMFCs, with hydrogen being removed from the fuel via the assistance of a platinum catalyst. 1. 1.1.1 SOFC Advantages and Disadvantages They were the first fuel cells to be commercialized. Then the efficiency of each fuel cell is provided. As an acid, it requires a very high temperature(150 ºC ~ 200 ºC) to start the reaction. Disadvantages include rather low power density and aggressive electrolyte. According to the U.S. Dept of Energy, more than 270 phosphoric acid fuel cells were deployed in stationary applications in both the United States and abroad. These include: 1) phosphoric acid (PAFC), 2) molten carbonate (MCFC), 3) solid oxide (SOFC), and 4) proton exchange membrane (PEMFC). 200 kW units are quite common and the major manufacturer, United Technologies Corp., Has installed over 75 MW of capacity. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. For a fuel cell with an acidic electrolyte, which is usually phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4), the half reactions are slightly different, although the redox reaction remains the same. They were the first fuel cells to be commercialized. PAFCs are also less powerful than other fuel cells, given the same weight and volume. development of fuel cell products for both stationary and transportation applications. Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) are a type of fuel cell that uses liquid phosphoric acid as an electrolyte. 1 Chapter 1: Introduction Fossil fuel consumption has increased over the past century, becoming a primary source of energy for many countries around the world and accounting for Each fuel cell has advantages and disadvantages that must be weighed when deciding which fuel cell to use for a particular application. They require much higher loadings of expensive platinum catalyst than other types of fuel cells do, which raises the cost. [2] It offers potentially higher energy densities than batteries and can be quickly recharged by refueling, whereas batteries must be thrown away or plugged in for a time‐consuming recharge. Developed in the mid-1960s and field-tested since the 1970s, they have improved significantly in stability, performance, and cost. Advantages and disadvantages of fuel cells [edit | edit source] Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) are a type of fuel cell that uses liquid phosphoric acid as an electrolyte. The advantages and disadvantages of five types of fuel cells are reviewed and analyzed for a transportation application: alkaline, phosphoric acid, proton exchange membrane, molten carbonate, and solid oxide. Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) operate at temperatures around 150 to 200 C (about 300 to 400 degrees F). Operating range is about 150 to 210 °C. fuel cells operate at different temperatures. High Efficiency- when utilizing co-generation, fuel cells can attain over 80% energy efficiency; Good reliability- quality of power provided does not degrade over time. The advantages and disadvantages of five types of fuel cells are reviewed and analyzed for a transportation application: alkaline, phosphoric acid, proton … Then in the 1970's, a fuel cell was developed to be used on Earth. It also has an extremely low vapor pressure even at an operating temperature of 200 °C (473 K). The second major benefit is the scale of electricity production. Phosphoric acid is chemically stable, and is easy to handle. Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) are a type of fuel cell that uses liquid phosphoric acid as an electrolyte.They were the first fuel cells to be commercialized [citation needed].Developed in the mid-1960s and field-tested since the 1970s, they have improved significantly in … As the name suggests, PAFCs use phosphoric acid as the electrolyte. Advantages: More detailed information is available in the applications section, which offers information specific to each industry. A fuel cell is defined as an electrochemical device that continuously converts the chemical energy of fuel into electricity and heat without combustion.. Oxygen reduction is slower on cathode so, Pt catalyst used in this cell to increase the reduction rate. The first of these is their ability to run on already available fuels. Electrolyte is highly concentrated or pure liquid phosphoric acid (H3PO4) saturated in a silicon carbide matrix (SiC). fuelcell.co.uk - Successful fuel strategies for the future. SOFCs operate high temperature, so the materials used as components are thermally challenged [5]. Advantages and disadvantages. The Advantages of Fuel Cells. At lower temperature phosphoric acid become a poor conductor, and the chances of carbon monoxide poisoning increased on Pt electrolyte, but still lower than other type of fuel cells (Stonehart, 1984, Bagotsky, 2012). There are four primary types of fuel cells that are used for stationary combined heat and power (CHP) applications. PAFCs were first produced in the 1960s for utilization on the space shuttle. The greenhouse gas emission created by utilizing fossil fuels has only been partly solved. This potentially allows efficiency increases of up to 70%. The solid oxide fuel cell is composed of all solid components with the electrolyte acting as an oxide ion conductor and operating at high temperature (~1000℃) in order to ensure adequate ionic and electronic conductivity for the cell components[5]. This is performed at moderately high temperatures, somewhere in between proton electrolyte membrane fuel cells and molten carbonate fuel cells. Phosphoric acid is chemically stable, and is easy to handle. The first of these is their ability to run on already available fuels. Disadvantages include rather low power density and aggressive electrolyte. Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells were the first fuel cells to become commercially viable. 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